Musical automaton “Bicyliste Coquette” under the heading "The exhibit in details"
Today is World Bicycle Day, a holiday that was announced recently. In April 2018, it was proclaimed by the UN General Assembly and is celebrated annually. The holiday is another opportunity to draw the attention of society to existing environmental problems, popularization of healthy lifestyle among residents of megacities, and rational functioning of the transport infrastructure.
The bicycle has been utilized for over 200 years. It is believed that Efim Artamonov, a serf from the Ural village of Verkhoturye, invented the first two-wheeled bicycle. The design of the vehicle was so endurable that the master made a laborious journey (at a speed of 10 km / h) from the Urals to St. Petersburg to get to the coronation of Alexander I in 1801, where the bicycle was “presented” to the Emperor.
The bicycle, built at the Nizhniy Tagil plant, was made from iron, looked like a two-wheeled cart with pedal drive to the front wheel and handlebar, the front wheel was almost three times larger than the rear one. The wheels, placed in tandem, were fixed by curved metal frame. The bike was set in motion by feet by alternate pressing the pedals on the front wheel axle.
German inventor Karl Freiherr von Drais submitted the patent of the first bicycle invention with two wheels in 1818. The design looked like a standard bike with wooden frame and no pedals. The invention received a form reminiscent of the modern one only by 1885. The British engineer John Kemp Starley modified the bicycle chain drive and made the wheels identical in diameter. In 1888, rubber tires, patented by the Scotsman John Boyd Dunlop, became widespread. Thanks to them, cycling became much more comfortable. Starting from the 1870s, numerous modified versions of bicycles began to appear - folding, aluminum, with different wheels, tandems, Recumbent bicycle (a bicycle that can be controlled while lying down). In general, the two-wheeled vehicles of the 1890s were very similar to modern bicycles, but due to the use of rusting steel components (stainless steel was not yet produced), it required constant cleaning, lubrication and rinsing with gasoline or kerosene to maintain working shape. At the end of the 19th century, pedal brakes and freewheel mechanism appeared. At the same time, hand brakes and the first folding and aluminum bicycles were invented. Bicycle design continued to develop, and the first speed shifting mechanisms were presented in the first half of the 20th century, although they were imperfect. By the end of the last century, titanium bicycles and carbon fiber composite vehicles were produced (1974-1975), the first cycling computer was introduced in 1983, and a few years later - index gear-change systems. At the beginning of the 20th century, the popularity of bicycles began to decline in connection with the appearance of the first cars, but in the late 1960s, the interest in two-wheeled transport increased again due to the popularization of the healthy lifestyle and close attention to environmental issues.
Open information sources; sibauto.su