Map of the Azov-Black Sea theater of military operations in the Crimean War

    Map of the Azov-Black Sea theater of military operations in the Crimean War

    France, Paris


    Engraver and editor: V. Fatout

    Paper; etching, chisel, watercolors

    58 х 71 cm (size of the sheet)


    The horizontal sheet features the map of the military actions in the area of the Azov and Black Seas during the Crimean war in 1854. The territories of the Ottoman Empire, the Danube princedoms and the south of the Russian Empire, as well as the march of the allies of Turkey - French and English fleets in the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea.

    An inscription in French is  in the cartouche on the bottom right side: "Carte de l'Empire Ottoman, des Principautés danubiennes, de la Russie méridionale et des pays limitrophes. Dressée pour l'intelligence de la guerre entre la Turquie et la Russie; ainsi que pour la marche de la flotte française et anglaise dans la mer de Marmara et la mer Noire. Paris, 1854. Fatout, boulevart Poissonnière, 17" [The map of the Ottoman Empire, the Danube princedoms , the south of Russia and bordering lands. Compiled during the military actions between Turkey and Russia; with the indication of the march of English and French fleets in the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Paris, 1854].

      Banners of the fleets of the Russian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, France and England are on the top right side.

    Scale: French myriameters, leagues, English miles.
    The subscriptions and inscriptions are in French.


    On 4 (16) October 1853 the Crimean War started. This war was between Russia and the alliance of Great Britain, France, Turkey and Sardinia for power in the Middle East. By the middle of the 19th century Great Britain and France forced Russia out of the Middle East markets and got Turkey under their control. At that time Russia was conducting active policy for liberating orthodox Slavic people out of the Turkish control. In order to weaken Russia Great Britain and France encouraged Turkey to start conflicts with Russia promising their military support. In 1850 there was a conflict between catholic and orthodox clergy men about the possession of Christian shrines in the Holy Land which was controlled by Turkey and the French government took part in this conflict. Handing over the keys from the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem into the hands of the catholic clergy became the act of provocation that resulted in the beginning of the war. Russia considered this act as humiliation of the Russian Emperor. In February of 1853 Nicholas I sent S. Menshikov as ambassador extraordinary to Constantinople who announced an ultimatum demand to let orthodox subjects of the Sultan be under protection of the Russian Tsar. This turned out to be a failure. In return to this on 26 June (8 July) 1853 Russia sent troops to Moldavia and Walachia (which were under its protection according to the Treaty of Adrianople) in order to influence Turkey. At the end of September 1853 Turkey being under the threat of war demanded the withdrawal of Russian troops and finally, on 4 (16) October 1853 it declared war on Russia.

    In 1853 and in the beginning of 1854 the military actions in all the territories involved in the conflict were successful for Russia. Russian troops had a series of victories in the Caucuses and the Black Sea fleet destroyed the Turkish fleet at Sinop. Seeing that Turkey is incapable to stand against Russia in March 1854 Great Britain and France declared war on Russia. In 1854 the troops of the countries that were in alliance with Turkey landed in the Crimea and gave a series of setbacks of the Russian Army and started the siege of Sevastopol. In 1855 Russia found itself in a diplomatic isolation. After the fall of Sevastopol the military actions actually stopped. The Crimean War ended with the Treaty of Paris signed on 18 (30) March 1856.