October 19 is a professional holiday of glass industry workers
In Russia, the professional holiday of glass industry workers is celebrated on November 19 since 2000. November 19 was chosen for a good reason – this day is the birthday of the outstanding Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov (1711-1765), who elaborated chemical production of glaze, glass and porcelain. He developed the technology and formulation of colored glass - smalt (pieces of a homogeneous opaque mixture of glass and metal oxides) that he utilized to create mosaic paintings. He developed the porcelain mass composition as well.
For the first time ever glass was produced over five thousand years ago. The earliest glass objects that have come up to us were discovered in the course of archeological excavations in ancient Egyptian towns.
Various glass artworks (mosaics, dishes, bracelets) were produced in Russia in the early 11th century. Glass manufacturing technology was adopted from the Byzantines, and already in the tomes of Yaroslav the Wise, Kiev artisans produced lead-silica glass. Lomonosov laid the foundation of the classical scientific approach to glass production in Russia in the middle of the 18th century.
Despite such ancient history, glass production became widespread only by the end of the 19th century due to the invention of the Siemens-Martin furnace and industrial manufacturing of soda.
For the professional holiday of glassmakers and manufacturers of art glass, we have prepared a review article on the basic technologies art glass production.