International Heraldry Day: Chatelaine and tobacco box with coat of arms
Today, on the International Heraldry Day* our traditional column "Exhibit in Detail" is featuring a story about the item from the museum exposition that is presented at the thematic exhibition "The Order of Things" -- Chatelaine (chain) for chips and tobacco box with the image of the Tevyashev noble family coat of arms and the monogram "ST", with chips of four card suits with the monogram "ST" (in the case), created in 1789.
Chatelaine in lozenge-shaped box for card chips (four chips - hearts, spades, crosses, diamonds), with the hinged lid. The skeletonized image of the Tevyashev family coat of arms is on the lid front side, the owner belonging to the Tevyashev family is on the case rear side. The chatelaine is comprised a complicated work chain with two rings-locks (large and small) and tobacco box with detachable lid. The lid bears the date "1789" on one side and inscription in Cyrillic on the other side. The image of a sheaf of wheat is on the lid upper edge. The monogram of the owner (from the Tevyashev family) in a foliage cartouche under the crown is on the case front side. The Tevyashev family coat of arms is on the case rear side.
Part 8 of the General Armorial of Noble Families of the Russian Empire
Description of the Coat of Arms (Blazon) of the Tevyashev family:
The image of gold cross is depicted on the upper red field of the shield divided into two parts; two hexagonal stars made from the same metal are on the cross sides. Beneath them is a silver city wall. A downward flying arrow is thrust into the silver moon on the blue field impales the wall. The shield is surmounted with a nobleman's helmet and a crown with ostrich feathers through which an arrow flying to the left is visible. The mantling on the shield is in blue and red, on gold background.
Surname Tevyashev occurs from Grand Duke Vasily Dmitrievich who had left the Golden Horde Ordyhoz and on christening was named Azariy. His grandsons Tevyash and Fust were granted estates. Great-grandson of Tevyash, Ivan Nikitich Tevyashev, in 1508 was granted by the Grand Duke Vasily Ivanovich, a charter for ancestral lands. Similarly, the descendants of this Tevyashev family served as dapifer (“stolnik”) and other ranks and owned villages. . All this is proved by the patents of nobility, marked in a copy from the definition of the Voronezh Nobility Assembly, on the inclusion of the Tevyashev family in the Noble Genealogical Book of the 6th part, of the ancient nobility.
In terms of its artistic and stylistic characteristics, manufacturing technique in the material, the variety of artistic silver work techniques combined in one item, the introduction of gold hand-forged elements a unified decoration system in the artistic and structural realization of the Chatelaine chain and tobacco box, taking into account the date and similar decorating of the tobacco-box and chatelaine with the monogram of the owner and the noble family coat of arms, -- the tobacco-box and chatelaine can be regarded as expensive custom-made, personal items, belonging to one owner, and dating back to 1789.
The emergence of coats of arms and, accordingly, heraldry, is associated with the changes in military hardware during the early Crusades. With the advent of full-fledged armor, which included a helmet covering the face, it became difficult to obtain any information about a person on the battlefield. In order to identify themselves, between the first and second crusades, knights began to paint their shields with different figures that acted as identifying marks.
In addition, the development of Heraldry was influenced by the development of feudal relations in Europe. Belonging to this or that social group became a factor that completely determined a person's life, and the nobility of a family became of great importance. Under these circumstances, emblems symbolizing one clan or another naturally emerged.
At first, only major lords had coats of arms, and later some noble ladies adopted the practice of using coats of arms. After that, coats of arms appeared in the clergy, wealthy burghers, artisans, shops and even entire cities. The Church, which initially treated coats of arms with suspicion, by the 14th century, had become one of the heraldic creativity centers.
The first coats of arms were quite simple and easy to read, but over time the symbolism of coats of arms and rules for their inscription and use evolved, and the courts of large feudal lords created a special post - herald. Initially heralds were heralds and stewards, but as their position required knowledge of titles and genealogy of nobles and knights, heralds eventually began to systematize knowledge of coats of arms and eventually created heraldry -- the science of coats of arms.
In the modern world, coats of arms have lost their former importance, but it will not be right to say that heraldry has completely transformed from a practical discipline into a historical one: even today, many organizations, companies and individuals use coats of arms as identifying symbols, and such coats of arms are developed by special heraldic societies with due regard for historically established rules and requirements.
June 10 was chosen to celebrate the International Heraldry Day since on this day in 1128, King Henry I of England (Henry I Beauclerc) knighted his future son-in-law Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, and granted him a shield with the image of six golden lions on the azure background. This shield is considered by some heraldic experts to be one of the first full-fledged coats of arms in history, although others have questioned this theory.
Although it is not known for certain whether June 10, 1128 can be considered the day when heraldry in its modern sense originated, the establishers of the International Day of Heraldry, the International Association of Amateur Heraldists, thought that this date is perfectly suitable for celebration. On the holiday, Associations of Heraldists all over the world hold various events aimed at popularizing heraldry.
*The holiday is dedicated to the historical discipline that deals with the study of coats of arms and everything associated with them. The holiday, which brings together professional heralds and heraldry enthusiasts, was first celebrated in 2013.